Deep GPR Overview

Conventional ground penetrating radars (GPRs) that use stroboscopic transformation for signal logging are not a popular tool in geology. The use of a 50 V transistorized transmitter considerably limits energy and probing capacities of such GPRs. Conventional GPRs enable sounding only in highly resistive rocks having low attenuation, with the maximum sounding depth limited to several dozen meters, while their operation in rocks of low resistivity with such a limited energy capacity is not possible at all.

However, there has been developed a new technology that makes a GPR capable of achieving sounding depths of up to 200 m. Loza-N GPRs employ “low-frequency” EM sounding systems and are distinguished from other GPRs by their enhanced performance (signal power) and a lower frequency band of the sounding impulse in order to decrease its attenuation per unit length. Loza Radar uses enhanced transmitters with sounding signal power up to 10,000 times more powerful than traditional GPRs) together with 15 MHz (10-meter) or 25 MHz (6-meter) antennas which allows it to achieve maximum sounding depths even in wet clayrock and low-resistivity structures. The performance of Loza Radar Model N GPR makes it applicable in a wide range of industries, including regional geophysical researches and mineral deposits exploration.
The Loza-N GPR system consists of two electrically independent parts – the transmitting part and the receiving part. The receiving part includes a high-voltage impulse transmitter and a transmitting antenna. The receiving part has a broadband receiver with digital logging and a receiving antenna.
In-field GPR surveys are usually performed by GPR profiling that ensures an almost continuous tracking of changes in physical and lithologic properties of the monitored section both horizontally along the profile and vertically. To obtain the required survey depth over 200 m, the length of Loza Radar receiving and transmitting antennae are over 10 m (central frequency = 15 MHz).
The antennae are deployed in-line over the profile. The distance between the receiver and the field source shall remain strictly unchanged while moving the antennae along the profile. The measuring interval and the distance between the profiles is defined depending on the geological task.

The GPR transmitter emits sounding signals (1). The receiver, triggered with airwaves, registers the received signal waveform within the set time lapse (2). One measurement is recorded at each measurement station, i.e. only one waveform is provided per station.

Registered waveforms of the reflected signal (vertical column of pixels) generate a profile. Pixel color is defined by the signal phase and amplitude according to the pre-set color palette (3). The maximum value of amplitude (+) is shown in red. The minimum value amplitude (-) is shown in black. Transitional amplitude values are reflected with the yellow, green, blue and purple shades.
This is the default method of Loza GPR data presentation. In addition, derived functions as well as a binary form of presentation can be used to display profiles. The binary form reflects only the signal phase. Positive polarization is reflected in black while negative polarization is reflected in white. The profile is presented on the GPR receiver console screen in a binary form.

Amplitude of received signal displayed with the default color palette.
Amplitude of received signal displayed as a derived amplitude function (filter).
Amplitude of received signal displayed in binary format.
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